Rome, Italy: Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major: Central Nave Decoration 2

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Sheppard, Beth M.
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May 19, 2017
Italy , Rome , Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore , Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major , Santa Maria Della Neve , Saint Mary of the Snow , Saint Mary of the Crib , Mary Churches , Pilgrim Churches , Papal Basilicas , Naves , Mosaics , Virgin Mary in Art , Jesus Christ in Art , Old Testament in Art , Ionic Columns , Architraves , Gilded Ceilings , Coffered Ceilings
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The Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore; Santa Maria della Neve; St. Mary of the Snow; St. Mary of the Crib) is the largest of the 80 Mary churches in Rome; it is also one of the seven pilgrim churches and one of four papal basilicas in Rome. The church was built in 432 CE at the behest of Pope Sixtus III, immediately after the Council of Ephesus declared that the Virgin Mary was the mother of God. The basilica sits on Esquiline Hill, where the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream of Pope Liberius a century earlier. The legend behind the church dates back to about 358 CE when a childless Roman couple decided to leave their estate to the Virgin Mary. She visited them in their sleep that hot summer night and told them to build a church in her honor on a spot marked by snow. The puzzled couple told Pope Liberius about their dream, only to discover that he had the same dream. The pope accompanied the couple to their property on Esquiline Hill, where they discovered it was covered in snow. Today this is commemorated annually on August 5 with white flower petals dropped from the ceiling of the basilica. Many of the church's mosaics were part of the original building, whereas its large marble columns probably came from an ancient Roman structure. The church is particularly known for its gilded, coffered ceiling, which was built using the first of the gold brought back from America by Columbus, and for containing a relic of Jesus' manger (hence, "St. Mary of the Crib"). The photograph shows the decoration of the central nave, with columns having Ionic capitals supporting an architrave. The mosaics of the nave depict scenes from the life of Mary, Jesus, and the Old Testament. These mosaics, and those of the triumphal arch, are some of the oldest representations of the Virgin Mary in Christian late antiquity. Large frescoes appear between the windows. The upper portion of the photo shows the gilded, coffered ceiling.
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