Rome, Italy: Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major: Cosmatesque Floor 3

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Sheppard, Beth M.
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May 19, 2017
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Italy , Rome , Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore , Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major , Santa Maria Della Neve , Saint Mary of the Snow , Saint Mary of the Crib , Mary Churches , Pilgrim Churches , Papal Basilicas , Naves , Cosmatesque Floors , Opus Sectile
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The Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore; Santa Maria della Neve; St. Mary of the Snow; St. Mary of the Crib) is the largest of the 80 Mary churches in Rome; it is also one of the seven pilgrim churches and one of four papal basilicas in Rome. The church was built in 432 CE at the behest of Pope Sixtus III, immediately after the Council of Ephesus declared that the Virgin Mary was the mother of God. The basilica sits on Esquiline Hill, where the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream of Pope Liberius a century earlier. The legend behind the church dates back to about 358 CE when a childless Roman couple decided to leave their estate to the Virgin Mary. She visited them in their sleep that hot summer night and told them to build a church in her honor on a spot marked by snow. The puzzled couple told Pope Liberius about their dream, only to discover that he had the same dream. The pope accompanied the couple to their property on Esquiline Hill, where they discovered it was covered in snow. Today this is commemorated annually on August 5 with white flower petals dropped from the ceiling of the basilica. Many of the church's mosaics were part of the original building, whereas its large marble columns probably came from an ancient Roman structure. The church is particularly known for its gilded, coffered ceiling, which was built using the first of the gold brought back from America by Columbus, and for containing a relic of Jesus' manger (hence, "St. Mary of the Crib"). The photograph shows a segment of floor in the central nave of the church in the Cosmatesque style: geometric inlay of glass mosaic pieces and marble. The mosaic pieces are in the opus sectile style: cut in different shapes and sizes to fit the pattern.
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