Rome, Italy: Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major: The Column of Peace and Fountain of Santa Maria Maggiore

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Sheppard, Beth M.
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May 19, 2017
Italy , Rome , Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore , Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major , Santa Maria Della Neve , Saint Mary of the Snow , Saint Mary of the Crib , Mary Churches , Pilgrim Churches , Papal Basilicas , Column of Peace , Della Pace , Fountain of Santa Maria Maggiore , Corinthian Columns , Virgin Mary in Art , Virgin and Child in Art , Sculptures of Virgin Mary , Bronze Statues , Public Fountains , Carlo Maderno , Guillaume Berthelot , Orazio Censore , Pope Paul V Borghese , Christopher Columbus , Basilica of Maxentius , Pope Liberius , Pope Sixtus III , Esquiline Hill , Roman Forum
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The Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore; Santa Maria della Neve; St. Mary of the Snow; St. Mary of the Crib) is the largest of the 80 Mary churches in Rome; it is also one of the seven pilgrim churches and one of four papal basilicas in Rome. The church was built in 432 CE at the behest of Pope Sixtus III, immediately after the Council of Ephesus declared that the Virgin Mary was the mother of God. The basilica sits on Esquiline Hill, where the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream of Pope Liberius a century earlier. The legend behind the church dates back to about 358 CE when a childless Roman couple decided to leave their estate to the Virgin Mary. She visited them in their sleep that hot summer night and told them to build a church in her honor on a spot marked by snow. The puzzled couple told Pope Liberius about their dream, only to discover that he had the same dream. The pope accompanied the couple to their property on Esquiline Hill, where they discovered it was covered in snow. Today this is commemorated annually on August 5 with white flower petals dropped from the ceiling of the basilica. Many of the church's mosaics were part of the original building, whereas its large marble columns probably came from an ancient Roman structure. The church is particularly known for its gilded, coffered ceiling, which was built using the first of the gold brought back from America by Columbus, and for containing a relic of Jesus' manger (hence, "St. Mary of the Crib"). The photograph shows the Column of Peace ("della Pace") in front of the Basilica. The column is 46 feet high and was previously located at the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum, which was incorrectly known as the Temple of Peace during the Middle Ages. This column is the only one that remains intact from the eight columns that supported its central vault. The Column of Peace was built in 1614 by Carlo Maderno as a commission by Pope Paul V Borghese. A bronze statue of the Virgin and Child by the sculptor Guillaume Berth�lot (and cast by Orazio Censore) tops the fluted Corinthian column, with eagles and dragons (referring to the noble coat of arms of the Borghese family) guarding the base of marble and travertine by Maderno. The Fountain of Santa Maria Maggiore is to the left of the column in the photograph. It was built by Maderno the following year, fed by the Felix Aqueduct.
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